Mechanical Twinning of Crystals

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M. V. Klassen-Neklyudova
574 g
279x210x12 mm

Springer Book Archives
I Experimental Data on Mechanical Twinning.- 1. Twinning with Change of Form.-
1. Geometry, Crystallography, and Relation to Atomic Structure.- 1. Idealized Schemes for Translational Slip and for Twinning with Change of Form.- 2. Twinning Equivalent to Homogeneous Deformation: Twinning Ellipsoid and Elements of Twinning.- 3. Conjugate Twins and Twins of the First and Second Kinds.- 4. The Main Geometrical Laws of Mechanical Twinning.- 5. Some Additional Aspects of Twin Geometry.- 6. Analytic Condition for a Crystal Lattice to Twin by Simple Shear.- 7. Transformation of Indices of Planes and Directions in Twinning.- 8. Deviation of Twinning from Deformation by Simple Shear.- 9. Redistribution of Basic Particles in Twinning with Change in Form.- 10. Laves's Rule for Projecting the Twin Plane on the Shear Plane:Limit of Possible Deviation from Deformation by Simple Shear.- 11. Change of Length in Mechanical Twinning.- 12. Experimental Determination of Elements of Twinning.- 13. Elements and Laws of Twinning for Crystals of High Symmetry.- 14. Twinning in Crystals of Low Symmetry.- 15. Disposition of Atoms in the Twin Boundary When This is Parallel to the Twin Plane.- 16. Structure of a Twin Boundary Deviating from a Twin Plane: Formation of Accommodation Bands and Shape of Twin Layers.- 17. Geometry of Intersection of Twin Layers.- 18. Prediction of Twin Elements for Metal Crystals.- 19. Examples of Prediction of Twin Elements.-
2. Production and Evolution of Twins in Response to Mechanical Stress.- 1. Methods of Producing and Detecting Mechanical Twins.- 2. Formation of Mechanical Twins in Calcite: Polysynthetic Twins, Detwinning, Parting Planes, and Channels.- 3. Elastic Twinning and Wedge-Type Elastic Twins.- 4. Surface Relief of Calcite in Elastic Twinning.- 5. Role of Localized Loads.- 6. Stages of Twinning: Elastic Limits and Yield Point.- 7. The Law of Critical Shear Stresses.- 8. Work of Formation for an Elastic-Twin Layer: Invariant of Deformation in Twinning.- 9. Rate of a Twinning Process: Jumps in Twinning, Deformation Curves, and Jumps in Deformation.- 10. Work-Hardening as a Result of Mechanical Twinning.- 11. Displacement of a Twin Boundary Under Stress.- 12. Twinning and Slip Along a Common Crystallographic Plane.- 13. Effects of Dimensions on Resistance to Twinning: Twinning in Crystals with Few Dislocations.- 13a. Effects of Real (Mosaic) Structure on Twinning; Effects of Impurities.- 14. Interaction of Intersecting Twin Layers.- 15. Effects of Temperature, Hydrostatic Pressure, and Deformation Rate on Elastic and Inelastic Twinning.- 16. Hardening of Calcite During Annealing; Elimination of Twin Layers by Annealing and Recrystallization of Layers.- 17. Cracking Along Twin Boundaries, Secondary Cleavage, Fatigue Cracks, Cold-Shortness in Metals; Twinning and Deformation Textures.- 18. Change in Internal Friction on Twinning in a Simple Crystal.- 19. Twinning in Rochelle Salt.- 20. Twin Components as Regions of Spontaneous Polarization.- 21. Elasticity of an Alloy: Analogy with the Elasticity of Rubber.- 22. Distribution of Residual Stresses in Displacement for the Boundaries of Polysynthetic Twins and of Domains.- 2. Twinning Without Change of Form.-
3. Geometry, Crystallography, and Relation to Atomic Structure.- 1. Laws of Twinning for Natural Quartz Crystals.- 2. Residual Mechanical Twins in Quartz Produced by Localized Loading; Methods of Detecting Twins, Shapes of Twins, and Twin Axes.- 3. Redistribution in the Formation of Dauphiné Twins; Ideal Spatial Form of a Mechanical Twin and Atomic Structure of Twin Sutures.-
4. Production and Development of Twins.- 1. Strength of Quartz: Role of Localized Stresses, Anisotropy of Twinning Forces; Flow at Room Temperature, Roles of Temperature and Time.- 2. Twinning of Quartz Plates Under Stress; Monocrystals Produced by Torsion and Vector Model of Twinning.- 3. Stages of Twinning in Quartz; Sense of Displacement of Twin Boundaries and Relation to Sign of Stress.- 4. Patterns of Twin Boundaries and the Stored Elastic Energy.- 5. Differences and Similarities in the Mechanical Twinning of Quartz and Calcite.- 6. Morphology of Twinning in Quartz.- 7. Practical Significance of Monocrystallization; Methods of Detwinning Quartz and Effects of Various Factors.- 8. Twinning in Triglycine Sulfate.- 9. Electrical Displacement of Twin Boundaries in Triglycine Sulfate.- 3. Twinning During Plastic Deformation and Fracture of Polycrystals.-
5. Twinning in Polycrystals: Effects of Grain Size.-
6. Twinning and Fracture of Polycrystals.- II Effects Related to Mechanical Twinning.- 4. Martensite Phase Transitions.-
7. Cooperative and Other Phase Transitions.-
8. Macroscopic Shear in Cooperative Transitions: Classification of Cooperative Transitions.-
9. Main Features of Martensite Transitions.-
10. Elastic Crystals of Martensite: Effects of Deformation on Martensite Transitions.- 5. Recrystallization Twins.-
11. Processes in Deformed Crystals at High Temperatures.-
12. Nucleation of Recrystallization Centers.-
13. Development of Annealing (Recrystallization) Twins.- 6. Lattice Reorientation in Inhomogeneous Deformation.-
14. Geometry, Crystallography, and Relation to Atomic Structure.- 1. Irregular Lattice Reorientation by Mechanical Stress.- 2. Historical.- 3. Types of Reorientation: Irrational Twins, Kink Bands, Plates, Deformation Bands, Accommodation Bands, and Brilliantov-Obreimov Bands (Irrational Twins).- 4. Relation of Mechanical lattice Reorientation to Slip and Twinning.- 5. Optical and X -Ray Evidence on the Structure of Kink Bands.- 6. Effects of Orientation on the Production of Mechanically Reoriented Regions.-
15. Production and Development of Reoriented Regions.- 1. Stress Distributions Producing Irrational Twins and Kink Bands.- 2. Rate of Kink-Band Formation, Displacement of Kink Boundaries by Mechanical Stresses, and Effects of Impurities.- 3. Effects of Temperature and Deformation Rate on the Formation of Kink Bands and Brilliantov-Obreimov Bands.- 4. Shape of Stress-Strain Curves in Kink-Band Formation; Test of Law of Critical Shear Stress.- 5. Kink Bands and Irrational Twins in the Plastic Deformation of Monocrystals.- 6. Kinking and Fracture.-
16. Formation of Kinks and Disoriented Microregions in Polycrystalline Metals.- III Theory of Twinning.- 7. Macroscopic Theory of Twinning.-
17. A Thin Twin as a Fracture Surface.-
18. Twin Boundary on a Fracture Surface.-
19. Energy of Twinning With and Without Change of Form.- 8, Microscopic Theory of Twinning.-
20. Transition Zones on Twin Boundaries.-
21. Sharp Twin Boundaries: Atomic Steps on a Twin Boundary.-
22. Twinning Dislocations and Stresses.-
23. Stacking Faults as Monolayer Twins.-
24. Atomic Model of Twinning..-
25. Difficulties; Problems of Nucleation.- Appendix 1: Selective Etching as a Means of Studying Twinning.- Appendix 2: Selective Etching Applied to the Dislocation Mechanism of Twinning With Change of Form.- Appendix 3: Selective Etching Applied to Twinning Without Change of Form.- Literature Cited.- Author Index.
This monograph is not confined to mechanical twinning in the narrow sense (lattice reorientation in re­ sponse to mechanical stress); it deals also with many effects related to mechanical twinning. such as formation of reoriented regions in response to high temperatures (martensite transformations. recrystallization twins). elec­ tric fields (ferroelectric domains). and magnetiC fields (magnetic domains). Mechanical reorientation is discussed for classical twinning and also for an inhomogeneous distribution of residual stresses (irrational twinning. kinking. and so on). Mechanical twinning in the narrow sense (regular. symmetrical lattice reorientation in response to me­ chanical stress) was for many years a specialist topic for mineralogists. petrographers. and crystallographers. Mineralogists and crystallographers carried out the study of the basic geometrical relationships in twinning; the principal names here are MUgge, Niggli. Johnsen. Reusch. Baumhauer. Churchman. Wallerant. Evans. and FriedeL The laws of mechanical twinning are now widely used in mineral identification and in elucidating the conditions of formation of rocks from the minerals they contain. The distribution of the twin bands in rock­ forming minerals enables one to establish the later processes that have occurred in the rock. Mechanical twinning is discussed by geOlogiSts and petrologists in the analYSis of flow effects. The importance of mechanical twinning in the plastic deformation and rupture of crystalline solids was W stressed by Academician V. I. Vernadskii in 1897 and by Kirpicheva ina paper entitled WFatigue in Metals in 1914.

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