Physical Chemistry for Engineering and Applied Sciences

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THINGS YOU SHOULD KNOW BUT PROBABLY FORGOT Basic Definitions SI Units Dalton's Atomic Theory Stoichiometry Equivalent Weight Amount of Substance: the Mole Avogadro's Hypothesis Conservation of Mass Conservation of Charge Atomic Mass Scales STATES OF MATTER AND THE PROPERTIES OF GASES The Three States of Matter Pressure Archimedes' Principle Temperature THE IDEAL GAS The Ideal Gas Equation of State Molar Volumes Combined Gas Equation Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures Mole Fractions Partial Volumes THE KINETIC THEORY OF GASES Postulates Simplified Derivation of the Ideal Gas Law The Meaning of Pressure The Meaning of Temperature Diffusion and Effusion The Speeds of Gas Molecules Effect of Pressure on Speed Distribution of Molecular Speeds The Maxwell-Boltzmann Distribution as an Energy Distribution Fraction of Molecules Having E > E' Concluding Remarks REAL GASES Real Gases Isotherms for Real Gases Equations of State for Real Gases The Virial Equation The Van der Waals Equation Liquefaction of Gases THERMODYNAMICS (I) Thermodynamics Definitions Used In Thermodynamics Work PV-Work Maximum Work Obtainable from the Isothermal Expansion of an Ideal Gas Reversible Processes THERMODYNAMICS (II) Internal Energy (U) and the First Law of Thermodynamics State Functions Work and Heat Are Not State Functions Q and W Have Algebraic Signs Another Look At PV-Work Chemical Reaction in a Constant Volume System The Heat Capacity of a Single Phase System DELTAU for the Isothermal Expansion of an Ideal Gas The Internal Energy of a Monatomic Ideal Gas THERMODYNAMICS (III) Enthalpy (H) Constant Pressure Processes Thermochemistry DELTAH for Fusion (Melting) and Freezing DELTAH for Vaporization and Condensation DELTAH for Sublimation Ionization Enthalpies Electron Affinities Bond Enthalpies THERMODYNAMICS (IV) The Standard State for Chemical Reactions Hess's Law of Constant Heat Summation Standard Enthalpies of Formation Variation of DELTAH with Temperature at Constant Pressure THERMODYNAMICS (V) Spontaneous Processes Entropy (S) DELTAS for the Isothermal Expansion of an Ideal Gas DELTAS for a Constant Pressure Heating or Cooling Process DELTAS for a Constant Volume Heating or Cooling Process DELTAS for a Reversible Phase Change Whenever a Real Process Takes Place DELTASuniv Increases Trouton's Rule THERMODYNAMICS (VI) Absolute Entropies and the Third Law of Thermodynamics Dealing With Phase Transitions Entropy Changes for Chemical Reactions THERMODYNAMICS (VII) Gibbs Free Energy (G) Gibbs Free Energy Changes, "Other" Work, and Spontaneity Evaluation of DELTAGT,P DELTAG for a Chemical Reaction Thermodynamic Stability CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM (I) Equilibrium Constants The Reaction Quotient (Q) and Relative Activities (ai) Formulation of Equilibrium Constants Molar Free Energies DELTAGR for Chemical Reactions CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM (II) Calculations Using Thermodynamic Equilibrium Constants Effect of Catalyst on K Effect of Temperature on K Effect of Pressure on K PHASE EQUILIBRIUM (I) Phase Change and Gibbs Free Energy Phase Diagram for a Single Pure Substance The Phase Rule PHASE EQUILIBRIUM (II) Phase Diagram for CO2 Phase Diagram for Water The Clapeyron Equation Phase Diagram for Carbon Phase Diagram for Helium The Clausius-Clapeyron Equation MIXTURES Expressions for Concentration Partial Molar Volumes The Chemical Potential (mu) The Chemical Potential of a Component in an Ideal Gas Mixture More About Activities Ideal Liquid Solutions of Volatile Solutes: Raoult's Law Ideal Liquid Solutions of Non-Volatile Solutes Ideal Liquid Solutions of Two Volatile Liquids Real (Non-Ideal) Solutions Chemical Potential and Solvent Activity Ideal Dilute Solutions of Volatile Solutes: Henry's Law The Solubility of Gases Distillation The Lever Rule Liquid-Liquid Phase Diagrams Liquid-Solid Phase Diagrams Compound Formation COLLIGATIVE PROPERTIES Colligative Properties Vapor Pressure Depression Boiling Point Elevation and Freezing Point Depression Osmotic Pressure IONIC EQUILIBRIUM Ionic Equilibrium Activities of Dissolved Species in Solution Activities and Activity Coefficients of Electrolytes in Solution Acids and Bases: The Bronsted-Lowry Concept The Self-Dissociation of Water Neutral Solutions ACID AND BASE DISSOCIATION Acid Dissociation Constants, Ka Dissociation of a Weak Acid Polyprotic Acid Calculation: Charge and Mass Balances Simplified Approach BASES AND THEIR SALTS Weak Bases: B or BOH The Salt of a Weak Acid: Hydrolysis The Rigorous Method The Salt of a Weak Base Acid-Base Titrations BUFFER SOLUTIONS Buffer Solutions Buffer of a Weak Acid and its Salt: HA + NaA Rigorous Derivation: HA/NaA Buffer Buffer of a Weak Base and Its Salt: BOH + BCl Rigorous Expression for BOH/BCl Buffer Acid-Base Indicators: HIn SOLUBILITY EQUILIBRIA Solubility Equilibria Relationship Between KSP and Solubility for Different Salt Types Activity Effects and Solubility The Common Ion Effect Salting In Selective Precipitation OXIDATION-REDUCTION REACTIONS Oxidation-Reduction (Redox) Reactions Rules for Assignment of Oxidation Numbers Steps for Balancing Redox Reactions ELECTROCHEMISTRY Half-Reactions, Electrodes, and Electrochemical Cells Electrical Work Types of Cells Liquid Junctions and Salt Bridges Equilibrium Voltages The Nernst Equation Single Electrode Potentials Calculation of Equilibrium Cell Voltages from Half-Cell Potentials Equilibrium Constants from Cell Voltages Thermodynamic Functions from Cell Voltages Concentration Cells CHEMICAL REACTION KINETICS Rates of Reactions: Chemical Kinetics Concentration Profiles Expression of Reaction Rates Differential Rate Laws First Order Reactions Half-Lives Second Order Reactions Zeroth Order Reactions Experimental Determination of k, m, and n Reaction Mechanisms The Rate-Determining Step Reaction Rates and Equilibrium Reaction Intermediates Effect of Temperature Rates of Ionic Reactions APPENDICES Properties of the Elements Thermodynamic Data for Selected Gases and Vapors Thermodynamic Data for Selected Liquids Thermodynamic Data for Selected Solids Thermodynamic Data for Selected Aqueous Ions Analytical Solution of a Cubic Equation The Newton-Raphson Method Understanding Basic Integration Understanding Logarithms, Exponentials, and the Integral of 1/x Standard Reduction Potentials Answers to Exercises Answers to Problems
Physical Chemistry for Engineering and Applied Sciences is the product of over 30 years of teaching first-year Physical Chemistry as part of the Faculty of Applied Science and Engineering at the University of Toronto. Designed to be as rigorous as compatible with a first-year student's ability to understand, the text presents detailed step-by-step derivations of the equations that permit the student to follow the underlying logic and, of equal importance, to appreciate any simplifying assumptions made or mathematical tricks employed. In addition to the 600 exercises and end-of-chapter problems, the text is rich in worked non-trivial examples, many of which are designed to be inspiring and thought-provoking. Step-by-step derivation of all equations enables the student to smoothly follow the derivation by sight, and can be understood relatively easily by students with moderate skills and backgrounds in mathematics.
Clear and accessible, Physical Chemistry for Engineering and Applied Sciences includes: * The answers to all of the 112 worked examples, 99 exercises following many of the worked examples, and 496 end-of-chapter problems * Topics not normally seen in introductory physical chemistry textbooks (ionic reaction rates, activities and activity coefficients) or not regularly explained in much detail (electrochemistry, chemical kinetics), with an eye on industrial applications * Special appendices that provide detailed explanations of basic integration and natural logarithms for students lacking a background in integral calculus * An in-depth chapter on electrochemistry, in which activities and activity coefficients are used extensively, as required for accurate calculations

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Autor: Frank R. Foulkes
ISBN-13 :: 9781466518469
ISBN: 1466518464
Erscheinungsjahr: 12.09.2012
Verlag: CRC PR INC
Gewicht: 1338g
Seiten: 704
Sprache: Englisch
Auflage New
Sonstiges: Buch, 254x178x36 mm
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