Ciliary and Flagellar Membranes
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Ciliary and Flagellar Membranes

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R. A. Bloodgood
774 g
244x170x24 mm

Springer Book Archives
1. Introduction to Cilia and Flagella.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Occurrence and Function.- 3. Structure.- 3.1. The Axoneme.- 3.2. The Transition Zone.- 3.3. The Basal Body and Associated Structures.- 3.4. Accessory Structures of the Flagellar Shaft.- 4. Production of Movement.- 4.1. The Sliding Microtubule Model.- 4.2. Active Sliding Is Produced by Dynein Arms Acting on Adjacent Outer Doublet Microtubules.- 4.3. The Mechanism of Force Generation.- 4.4. Internal Resistances Convert Sliding into Bending.- 4.5. Coordination of Interdoublet Sliding.- 4.6. Central Pair Rotation.- 5. Regulation of Movement.- 5.1. Initiation of Motility.- 5.2. Behavioral Responses.- 5.3. Hyperactivation of Sperm.- 6. Sensory Reception.- 7. Origin.- References.- 2. Linkages between Microtubules and Membranes in Cilia and Flagella.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Linkage of Basal Bodies and Transition Regions to the Membrane.- 2.1. Structural Studies.- 2.2. Functions of the Bridges.- 3. Microtubule Capping Structures Attach the Ends of Microtubules to the Membrane.- 3.1. Capping Structures and Motility.- 3.2. Capping Structures and Microtubule Assembly.- 3.3. Caps Are Bound to Assembling and Disassembling Microtubules.- 3.4. Can Capping Structures Regulate Tubulin Addition to Microtubules?.- 3.5. Are Microtubule Caps Found in the Cytoplasm?.- 4. Bridges Linking the Sides of Outer Doublet Microtubules to the Membrane.- 4.1. Bridges Linking Microtubules to Extraciliary Structures.- 4.2. Sites of Attachment of the Bridges.- 4.3. Attachment to the Doublet Microtubules.- 4.4. Sites of Membrane Attachment.- 4.5. Nonciliary Microtubule-Membrane Bridges.- 4.6. Functions of the Bridges.- 5. Summary.- References.- 3. Euglena gracilis: A Model for Flagellar Surface Assembly, with Reference to Other Cells That Bear Flagellar Mastigonemes and Scales.- 1. Introduction.- 2. The Relationship of Euglenoids to Other Organisms.- 3. Flagellar Anatomy.- 3.1. Mastigonemes and the Flagellar Sheath.- 3.2. The Paraxial Rod.- 3.3. The Flagellar Membrane.- 4. Assembly of the Flagellar Surface.- 4.1. Origin of Flagellar Scales, Mastigonemes, and Membranes.- 4.2. Composition of Scales and Mastigonemes.- 4.3. Release of Mastigonemes and Flagellar Scales at the Cell Surface.- 4.4. Organizing the Flagellar Surface.- 5. The Control of Flagellar Surface Assembly in Euglena.- 6. Summary and Prospectus.- References.- 4. Gliding Motility and Flagellar Glycoprotein Dynamics in Chlamydomonas.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Gliding Motility.- 2.1. Gliding Motility-An Overview.- 2.2. Gliding Motility in Chlamydomonas.- 3. Polystyrene Microsphere Movements.- 4. Flagellar Surface Motility.- 5. Mating-Associated Dynamic Flagellar Surface Events.- 6. Characterization of the Major Flagellar Glycoproteins in C. reinhardtii.- 7. Dynamics of Flagellar Membrane Glycoproteins.- 8. Flagellar Signaling in Chlamydomonas.- 8.1. Signaling Related to Gametic Interactions.- 8.2. Signaling Related to Glycoprotein Redistribution in Vegetative Flagella.- 9. Use of Carbohydrate Probes in Conjunction with FACS to Isolate Mutant Cell Lines with Carbohydrate Defects.- 10. Use of the L-23 Mutant Cell Line to Demonstrate That Flagellar Membrane Glycoprotein Movements Are Essential for Gliding Motility.- 11. Mechanisms and Motors.- 11.1. Candidates for the Motor Responsible for Flagellar Membrane Protein Redistribution and Gliding Motility.- 11.2. A Proposed Mechanism for Gliding Motility.- 12. Conclusions.- References.- 5. The Role of Flagella in the Sexual Reproduction of Chlamydomonas Gametes.- 1. Introduction.- 2. The Agglutination Process.- 3. The Agglutinins.- 4. Mode of Action of the Agglutinins.- 5. Longitudinal Redistribution of Agglutinins.- 6. The Signaling Action of Sexual Agglutination.- 7. Modulation of Sexual Agglutinability.- 8. Conclusions.- References.- 6. The Role of Ciliary Surfaces in Mating in Paramecium.- 1. Introduction.- 2. The Events Occurring during Conjugation in Paramecium.- 3. Role of Ciliary Surfaces in the Mating Reaction.- 3.1. Mating Substances in the Ciliary Membrane.- 3.2. Localization of Mating-Reactive Cilia.- 3.3. Attempts to Isolate Pure Mating-Reactive Cilia.- 3.4. Nature of the Ciliary Interactions.- 3.5. Hydrophobic Interactions between Cilia and Polystyrene Surfaces.- 4. Regulation of the Expression of Mating Reactivity.- 4.1. Genetic Control of the Mating Type Specificity.- 4.2. Temporal Differentiation of Mating-Reactive Cilia.- 5. Results of Ciliary Interactions.- 5.1. Decrease in Swimming Velocity.- 5.2. Early Micronuclear Migration.- 5.3. Local Degeneration of Cilia and Pair Formation.- 6. Biochemical and Morphological Approaches to Characterizing the Mating Substances.- 7. General Discussion and Conclusions.- References.- 7. Calcium Ions and the Regulation of Motility in Paramecium.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Voltage-Dependent Calcium Channels.- 2.1. Voltage-Clamp Analysis of Calcium Currents.- 2.2. Calcium Channel Mutants.- 2.3. Location of Calcium Channels.- 2.4. Calcium Channel Activity in Isolated Ciliary Membranes.- 2.5. Curing of pawns and CNRs.- 2.6. Characterization of Ciliary Membrane Proteins.- 3. Enzymatic Activity Associated with the Ciliary Membrane.- 3.1. Calmodulin and Calmodulin-Binding Proteins.- 3.2. Ca-ATPases.- 3.3. Adenylate Cyclase.- 3.4. Guanylate Cyclase.- 3.5. Protein Kinases.- 4. Regulation of Cell Motility: Calcium Sensitivity.- 4.1. Ciliary Responses to Hyperpolarization.- 4.2. Ciliary Responses to Depolarization.- 5. Perspectives.- References.- 8. Structure, Turnover, and Assembly of Ciliary Membranes in Tetrahymena.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Lipid Composition.- 3. Protein Components.- 4. Ultrastructure.- 5. Turnover.- 6. Modulation.- 7. Assembly.- 8. Concluding Remarks.- References.- 9. Ciliary Membrane Tubulin.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Ciliary versus Flagellar Membranes.- 3. Protozoan Cilia and Flagella.- 4. Definitions and Origin.- 5. Metabolic Relationship between Membrane and Axonemal Tubulin.- 6. Reconstitution of Ciliary Membranes.- 7. Micellarization with Detergents and Interaction with Lipids.- 8. Tubulin as an Integral Membrane Structural Element.- 9. Summary and Discussion.- References.- 10. Lipids of Ciliary and Flagellar Membranes.- 1. Preparations of Cilia and Flagella and Their Membranes.- 2. Lipid Composition.- 2.1. Sterols.- 2.2. Fatty Acid Composition.- 2.3. Glycerolipids.- 2.4. Sphingophospholipids and Sphingophosphonolipids.- 2.5. Chlorosulfolipids.- 2.6. Lipoconjugates.- 3. Enzymes and Lipid Metabolism.- 4. Alterations in Lipid Composition.- 4.1. Culture Age.- 4.2. Dietary Supplementation.- 4.3. Drugs and Inhibitor Compounds.- 4.4. Temperature Shifts.- 4.5. Mutations.- 5. Conclusions.- References.- 11. Flagellar Surfaces of Parasitic Protozoa and Their Role in Attachment.- 1. Developmental Cycles of Kinetoplastid Protozoa.- 2. Flagellar Surfaces and Their Relation to Other Surface Domains.- 2.1. Flagellar Structure and Function in Kinetoplastids.- 2.2. Functional Aspects of the Parasite Surface: Similarity of Flagellar and Body Membranes.- 2.3. Compositional Differences between Flagellar and Body Membranes.- 2.4. Flagellar Fractions and Flagellum-Specific Antigens.- 3. Flagellar Attachment to the Body or to Other Flagellates.- 3.1. Attachment to the Body.- 3.2. Attachment to Other Flagella.- 3.3. Attachment to Cysts.- 4. Flagellar Attachment to Host Surfaces.- 4.1. Attachment to Chitin and Other Nonliving Surfaces.- 4.2. Attachment to Living Host Cells.- 5. Role of Host Attachment in Parasite Development and Transmission.- 5.1. Specificity of Attachment.- 5.2. Parasite Reproduction and Differentiation.- Summary.- References.- 12. The Sperm Plasma Membrane: A Little More Than Mosaic, a Little Less Than Fluid.- 1. Introduction.- 1.1. Why Should the Mammalian Sperm Plasma Membrane Be Given Special Consideration?.- 1.2. Regionalization of the Sperm Plasma Membrane.- 1.3. Membrane Modification in the Absence of Macromolecular Biosynthesis.- 2. Evolving a Model for Membrane Organization and Dynamics.- 2.1. Lipid Diffusion in Biological Membranes.- 2.2. Protein Diffusion in Biological Membranes.- 3. Diffusion on Mammalian Spermatozoa.- 3.1. Constraints on Sperm Geometry.- 3.2. Lipid Diffusion on Mammalian Spermatozoa.- 3.3. Changes in Sperm Plasma Membrane Lipid Diffusibility during Spermatogenesis, Maturation, and Capacitation.- 3.4. Causes of Nondiffusing Lipid and the Question of Lipid Domains.- 3.5. Protein Diffusion on Mammalian Sperm.- 4. Mechanisms of Membrane Regionalization.- 4.1. Regionalization by Immobilization.- 4.2. Regionalization by Diffusional Barriers.- 4.3. Regionalization Due to Selective Solubility.- 5. How Does the Sperm Become Regionalized?.- 6. Mechanisms of Redistribution.- 7. Summary.- References.- 13. Structure and Assembly of the Oviduct Ciliary Membrane.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Organization of the Ciliary Membrane.- 2.1. Ultrastructural Data.- 2.2. Cytochemical Data.- 2.3. Ciliary Membrane-Cytoskeleton Relationships.- 3. Assembly of the Ciliary Membrane.- 3.1. Cytoplasmic Events.- 3.2. Plasma Membrane Events.- 4. Deciliation.- 5. Functions of Ciliary Membrane in Oviduct.- References.- 14. The Surface of Mammalian Respiratory Cilia: Interactions between Cilia and Respiratory Pathogens.- 1. Introduction.- 2. The Structure and Cytochemistry of the Surface of Respiratory Cilia.- 2.1. Structure.- 2.2. Chemistry.- 3. Interactions between Pathogens and Respiratory Cilia.- 3.1. General Mechanisms of Adherence.- 3.2. Adherence of Specific Pathogens to Respiratory Cilia.- 4. Toxicity of Microbial Products for Cilia.- 5. Summary: Implications of Ciliary Surface Composition to the Therapy of Infections of Cilia.- References.- 15. The Photoreceptor Connecting Cilium: A Model for the Transition Zone.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Structure of Photoreceptor Cilia.- 3. Microtubule-Membrane Cross-Linkers of the Connecting Cilium.- 3.1. The Ciliary Surface and Its Transmembrane Assemblage.- 3.2. Identification of Surface Components of the Assemblage.- 3.3. The Periciliary Ridge Complex.- 4. Functions of the Photoreceptor Connecting Cilium.- 4.1. Delivery of Membrane Components.- 4.2. The Connecting Cilium in Disk Morphogenesis.- 4.3. The Connecting Cilium as a Barrier between Membrane Domains.- 4.4. Delivery of Cytosolic Components to the Outer Segment.- 5. Summary.- References.
While there have been many recent books on the cell surface and a few on the topic of cilia and flagella, this is the fIrst volume that attempts to bring together the available informa­ tion on ciliary and flagellar membranes. This reflects a slow awakening by cell biologists and other scientists to the signifIcance of ciliary and flagellar surfaces. When Michael Sleigh edited an excellent book entitled Cilia and Flagella in 1974, not one of the sixteen chapters was devoted to ciliary or flagellar surfaces. When W. B. Amos and J. G. Duckett edited the very fIne 25th Symposium of the Society for Experimental Biology on Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Flagella in 1982, only two of the twenty chapters on eu­ karyotic cilia and flagella were devoted to ciliary and flagellar surfaces. Only in 1989 has the timing become right to produce a volume entirely devoted to the nonaxonemal struc­ tures and functions of eukaryotic cilia and flagella. The fIfteen chapters in this volume cover a wide spectrum of organisms (from protozoa and algae to birds and mammals) and an equally wide spectrum of topics (from sexual interactions in the algae to the binding of pathogens in the lung).

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