Understanding Wind Power Technology: Theory, Deployment and Optimisation

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Wind energy technology has progressed enormously over the lastdecade. In coming years it will continue to develop in terms ofpower ratings, performance and installed capacity of large windturbines worldwide, with exciting developments in offshoreinstallations.

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Preface xiii

About the Authors xiv

1 The History of Wind Energy 1
Jos Beurskens

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 The First Windmills: 600-1890 2

1.3 Generation of Electricity using Wind Farms: Wind Turbines 1890-1930 10

1.4 The First Phase of Innovation: 1930-1960 16

1.5 The Second Phase of Innovation and Mass Production: 1960 to Today 25

References 43

2 The International Development of Wind Energy 45
Klaus Rave

2.1 The Modern Energy Debate 45

2.2 The Reinvention of the Energy Market 48

2.3 The Importance of the Power Grid 50

2.4 The New Value-added Chain 53

2.5 International Perspectives 55

2.6 Expansion into Selected Countries 58

2.7 The Role of the EU 59

2.8 International Institutions and Organisations 61

2.9 Global Wind Energy Outlook 2012 - The Global View into the Future 65

2.10 Conclusion 71

References 71

3 Wind Resources, Site Assessment and Ecology 73
Hermann van Radecke

3.1 Introduction 73

3.2 Wind Resources 73

3.3 Acoustics 101

3.4 Shadow 107

3.5 Turbulence 109

3.6 Two Comprehensive Software Tools for Planning Wind Farms 111

3.7 Technical Guidelines, Fgw Guidelines and IEC Standards 112

3.8 Environmental Influences Bundes-Immissionsschutzgesetz (Federal Imission Control Act) and Approval Process 113

3.9 Example Problems 121

3.10 Solutions to the Problems 123

References 124

4 Aerodynamics and Blade Design 126
Alois Schaffarczyk

4.1 Summary 126

4.2 Horizontal Plants 126

4.3 Integral Momentum Theory 130

4.4 Momentum Theory of the Blade Elements 137

4.5 Vertical Plants 142

4.6 Wind-Driven Vehicles with a Rotor 151

4.7 Exercises 157

References 158

5 Rotor Blades 162
Lothar Dannenberg

5.1 Introduction 162

5.2 Loads on Rotor Blades 163

5.3 Vibrations and Buckling 180

5.4 Finite Element Calculations 184

5.5 Fibre-Reinforced Plastics 187

5.6 Production of Rotor Blades 195

References 200

6 The Drive Train 202
Sönke Siegfriedsen

6.1 Introduction 202

6.2 Blade Angle Adjustment Systems 203

6.3 Wind Direction Tracking 209

6.4 Drive Train Components 215

6.5 Drive Train Concepts 227

6.6 Damage and Causes of Damage 240

6.7 Design of Drive Train Components 241

6.8 Intellectual Property in the Wind Industry 246

Further Reading 251

7 Tower and Foundation 253
Torsten Faber

7.1 Introduction 253

7.2 Guidelines and Standards 255

7.3 Tower Loading 255

7.4 Verification of the Structure 258

7.5 Design Details 261

7.6 Materials for Towers 263

7.7 Model Types 265

7.8 Foundations for Onshore WTs 267

7.9 Exercises 268

7.10 Solutions 269

References 272

8 Power Electronics and Generator Systems for Wind Turbines 273
Friedrich W. Fuchs

8.1 Introduction 273

8.2 Single-Phase AC Voltage and Three-Phase AC Voltage Systems 275

8.3 Transformer 278

8.4 Generators for Wind Turbines 283

8.5 Synchronous Machines 303

8.6 Converter Systems for Wind Turbines 310

8.7 Control of Variable-Speed Converter-Generator Systems 318

8.8 Compliance with the Grid Connection Requirements 329

8.9 Further Electronic Components 331

8.10 Features of the Power Electronics Generator System in Overview 332

8.11 Exercises 333

References 338

9 Control of Wind Energy Systems 340
Reiner Johannes Schütt

9.1 Fundamental Relationships 341

9.2 WT Control Systems 352

9.3 Operating Management Systems for WTs 358

9.4 Wind Farm Control and Automation Systems 363

9.5 Remote Control and Monitoring 365

9.6 Communication Systems for WTS 366

References 368

10 Grid Integration 369
Sven Wanser and Frank Ehlers

10.1 Energy Supply Grids in Overview 369

10.2 Grid Control 372

10.3 Basic Terminology of Grid Integration of Wind Turbines 380

10.4 Grid Connections for WTs 387

10.5 Grid Connection of WTs 397

10.6 Further Developments in Grid Integration and Outlook 401

References 405

11 Offshore Wind Energy 406
Lothar Dannenberg

11.1 Offshore Wind Turbines 406

11.2 Currents and Loads 409

11.3 Waves, Wave Loads 413

11.4 Swell 430

11.5 Scouring Formation, Growth, Corrosion and Ice 437

11.6 Foundations for OWTs 441

11.7 Soil Mechanics 450

References 454

Index 455
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Wind energy technology has progressed enormously over the last decade. In coming years it will continue to develop in terms of power ratings, performance and installed capacity of large wind turbines worldwide, with exciting developments in offshore installations.

Designed to meet the training needs of wind engineers, this introductory text puts wind energy in context, from the natural resource to the assessment of cost effectiveness and bridges the gap between theory and practice. The thorough coverage spans the scientific basics, practical implementations and the modern state of technology used in onshore and offshore wind farms for electricity generation.

Key features:
* provides in-depth treatment of all systems associated with wind energy, including the aerodynamic and structural aspects of blade design, the flow of energy and loads through the wind turbine, the electrical components and power electronics including control systems
* explains the importance of wind resource assessment techniques, site evaluation and ecology with a focus of project planning and operation
* describes the integration of wind farms into the electric grid and includes a whole chapter dedicated to offshore wind farms
* includes questions in each chapter for readers to test their knowledge

Written by experts with deep experience in research, teaching and industry, this text conveys the importance of wind energy in the international energy-policy debate, and offers clear insight into the subject for postgraduates and final year undergraduate students studying all aspects of wind engineering. Understanding Wind Power Systems is also an authoritative resource for engineers designing and developing wind energy systems, energy policy makers, environmentalists, and economists in the renewable energy sector.
Editiert von: Alois Schaffarczyk
Professor Alois Schaffarczyk, Kiel University of Applied Sciences, Kiel, Germany
Professor Schaffarczyk is a founding member and previous manager of CEwind eG, the consortium for wind energy research between Schleswig-Holstein's Universities in Germany. He has worked in the field of wind turbine aerodynamics since 1997 and currently teaches courses in the CEwind MSc. Wind Engineering program.

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Autor: Alois Schaffarczyk
ISBN-13 :: 9781118647516
ISBN: 1118647513
Erscheinungsjahr: 03.06.2014
Verlag: PAPERBACKSHOP UK IMPORT
Gewicht: 881g
Seiten: 466
Sprache: Englisch
Sonstiges: Buch, 252x179x30 mm
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