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Physical Principles of Electron Microscopy

 Ebook
Sofort lieferbar | Lieferzeit:3-5 Tage I
ISBN-13:
9780387260167
Einband:
Ebook
Seiten:
202
Autor:
Ray F. Egerton
eBook Typ:
PDF
eBook Format:
EPUB
Kopierschutz:
1 - PDF Watermark
Sprache:
Englisch
Beschreibung:

"Scanning and stationary-beam electron microscopes have become an indespensible tool for both research and routine evaluation in materials science, the semiconductor industry, nanotechnology and the biological, forensic, and medical sciences. This book provides an introduction to the theory and current practice of electron microscopy, aimed primarily at undergraduates who need to learn how the basic principles of physics are applied in an important area of science and technology that has contributed greatly to our knowledge of life processes and "inner space." However, it will be equally valuable for technologists who make use of electron microscopes and for graduate students, university teachers and researchers who need a concise text that deals with the basic principles of microscopy. Less technical but broader in scope than other microscopy textbooks, Physical Principles of Electron Microscopy is appropriate for undergraduates and technologists with limited mathematical training. TOC:Dedication.- Preface.- An Introduction to Microscopy.- Electron Optics.- The Transmission Electron Microscope.- TEM Specimens and Images.- The Scanning Electron Microscope.- Analytical Electron Microscopy.- Recent Developments.- Appendix: Mathematical Derivations.- The Schottky Effect.- Impact Parameter in Rutherford Scattering.- References.- Index."
Dedication Preface x 1. An Introduction to Microscopy 1 1.1 Limitations of the Human Eye 1 1.2 The Light-Optical Microscope 5 1.3 The X-ray Microscope 9 1.4 The Transmission Electron Microscope 11 1.5 The Scanning Electron Microscope 17 1.6 Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope 19 1.7 Analytical Electron Microscopy 21 1.8 Scanning-Probe Microscopes 21 2. Electron Optics 27 2.1 Properties of an Ideal Image 27 2.2 Imaging in Light Optics 30 2.3 Imaging with Electrons 34 2.4 Focusing Properties of a Thin Magnetic Lens 41 2.5 Comparison of Magnetic and Electrostatic Lenses 43 2.6 Defects of Electron Lenses 44 3. The Transmission Electron Microscope 57 3.1 The Electron Gun 58 3.2 Electron Acceleration 66 3.3 Condenser-Lens System 70 3.4 The Specimen Stage 75 3.5 TEM Imaging System 78 3.6 Vacuum System 88 4. TEM Specimens and Images 93 4.1 Kinematics of Scattering by an Atomic Nucleus 94 4.2 Electron-Electron Scattering 96 4.3 The Dynamics of Scattering 97 4.4 Scattering Contrast from Amorphous Specimens 100 4.5 Diffraction Contrast from Polycrystalline Specimens 106 4.6 Dark-Field Images 108 4.7 Electron-Diffraction Patterns 108 4.8 Diffraction Contrast within a Single Crystal 112 4.9 Phase Contrast in the TEM 115 4.10 TEM Specimen Preparation 119 5. The Scanning Electron Microscope 125 5.1 Operating Principle of the SEM 125 5.2 Penetration of Electrons into a Solid 129 5.3 Secondary-Electron Images 131 5.4 Backscattered-Electron Images 137 5.5 Other SEM Imaging Modes 139 5.6 SEM Operating Conditions 143 5.7 SEM Specimen Preparation 147 5.8 The Environmental SEM 149 5.9 Electron-Beam Lithography 151 6. Analytical Electron Microscopy 155 6.1 The Bohr Model of the Atom 155 6.2 X-ray Emission Spectroscopy 158 6.3 X-Ray Energy-Dispersive Spectroscopy 161 6.4 Quantitative Analysis in the TEM 165 6.5 Quantitative Analysis in the SEM 167 6.6 X-Ray Wavelength-Dispersive Spectroscopy 168 6.7 Comparison of XEDS and XWDS Analysis 169 6.8 Auger Electron Spectroscopy 171 6.9 Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy 172 7. Recent Developments 179 7.1 Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy 179 7.2 Aberration Correction 182 7.3 Electron-Beam Monochromators 184 7.4 Electron Holography 186 Appendix: Mathematical Derivations 191 A.1 The Schottky Effect 179 A.2 Impact Parameter in Rutherford Scattering 182 References 195 Index 197

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