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Hormonal Carcinogenesis IV

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Jonathan J. Li
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It has been over a decade since the First International Symposium on Hormonal Carcinogenesis convened in 199 1. Since then, the field has rapidly expanded with considerable progress in both breast and prostate cancers; while ovarian and endometrial cancer have been hampered, in part, due to the absence of suitable hormone-mediated animal models. While knock-out, transgenic, and cell-culture systems have been extremely useful in identifying specific genelprotein alterations and the ensuing pathways affected, the precise molecular mechanisms whereby sex hormones elicit their oncogenic effects still remain elusive. Moreover, despite the considerable progress made in breast cancer research, the exact role of progestins in the presence or absence of estrogen in breast growth, differentiation, and malignant transformation is lacking. Elucidating the incipient molecular alterations in earlylpre-invasive lesions elicited by these hormones is a growing important focus of this field. The main purpose of these Symposia has been to address vital questions that impact our understanding of the causation, dependency, progression, resistance, and prevention of hormonally-associated cancers. We are indebted to the Scientific Advisory Board members who worked with us reviewing and offering suggestions to finalize the scientific program. We offer special thanks for the guidance and support of Dr. Gerald Mueller. His wisdom played an indispensable role in maintaining the excellence of these Symposia. We also acknowledge the numerous external reviewers that worked diligently to revise and improve the quality of the manuscripts. We are very grateful to Ms. Tandria Price.
Uniquely, Hormonal Carcinogeneis IV, integrates salient aspects of hormone-related cancers of interest to epidemiologists, basic researchers, and clinicians. The most recent advances in the major hormone-related cancers are presented by leaders of their specialty. The chapters in this volume deal with the causation, dependence, and resistance of endocrine-related cancer with particular emphasis on the most common neoplasms occuring in men and women world wide, such as breast, prostate, uterine and ovarian cancers.
Symposium Address.- Symposium Address.- State of the Art Lectures.- Chromosomal Instability: A New Paradigm for Estrogen-induced Oncogenesis.- The Molecular Pathogenesis of Human Prostate Cancer.- Breast Cancer I: Progesterone Action.- Pathologic, Clinical, and Epidemiologic Characteristics of Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma and a Review of Studies Evaluating its Association with Hormone Replacement Therapy.- Progestin-Regulated Genes and Breast Cancer Risk: Good or Bad?.- Role of Progesterone Receptors in Mammary Development and Carcinogenesis.- Breast Cancer II: Mechanisms of Genomic Instability.- c-Myc Deregulation Promotes a Complex Network of Genomic Instability.- Deregulation of Cyclin E and Genomic Instability.- Centrosome Amplification and the Origin of Chromosomal Instability in Breast Cancer.- Breast and Prostate: Early In-Situ Lesions.- Premalignant Breast Disease: Anatomic Lesions and Hormonal Associations.- Aromatase Overexpression: Effect of Tissue Estrogen on Phenotypic and Biochemical Changes in Aromatase Transgenic Mice.- Prostate Epithelial Carcinogenesis: Putative and Controversial Precursor Lesions.- Promotion/Prevention of Hormone Cancers.- Estrogen Can Prevent Breast Cancer by Mimicking the Protective Effect of Pregnancy.- Aromatase Inhibition and Breast Cancer.- Prostate I: Androgen/Estrogen Action.- Androgens and Prostate Cancer Etiology: Sorting Through the Evidence.- Id-1 Protein as a New Marker for PCA.- Prostate II: Androgen Receptor: Dependence/Resistance.- Four Stages of Prostate Cancer: Suppression and Eradication by Androgen and Green Tea Epigallocatechin Gallate.- Androgen Receptor and Interleukin-6 Signaling In PCA Progression.- Role of the Androgen Receptor and PI3K/Akt in the Survival of Androgen-Refractory Prostate Cancer Cells.- Endometrium/Ovarian/Colon.- The BDII Inbred Rat: A Model for Genetic Analysis of Endometrial Carcinoma.- Potential Role of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone and Estrogen in Ovarian Cancer.- Communications.- Dose of Progestogen in Postmenopausal Combined Hormone Therapy and Risk of Endometrial Cancer.- Mammographic Densities and Urinary Hormones in Healthy Women with Different Ethnic Backgrounds.- Polymorphism of the Estrogen Receptor-? Gene in Breast Cancer.- Characterization of Genetic Polymorphism of Glycine N-Methyltransferase Gene in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.- Role of Soy Phytoestrogens Genistein and Daidzein in Focal Adhesion Assembly and Focal Adhesion Kinase Activity in Breast Cancer Cells.- Identification of Genes Regulated by the Antiprogestin, Onapristone, in Breast Cancer Cells using Microarray Analysis.- Expression of Estrogen ? and ? Variants, Androgen, and Progesterone Receptors in Human Normal and Neoplastic Endometrium.- Toremifene (ACAPODENE(TM)) Reduces High Grade Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasis in a Phase IIa Clinical Trial.- Stereological Study of Mean Nuclear Volume Weighted by Volume in Normal Prostate, Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia, and Adenocarcinoma.- Constitutively Active Androgen Receptor Variant Detected in a Human Prostate Cancer.- Cancer Prevention by Green Tea via EGCG-Mediated Inhibition of Fatty Acid Synthase.- Silencing of the Fatty Acid Synthase Gene by RNA Interference Inhibits Growth and Induces Apoptosis of LNCaP Prostate Cancer Cells.- Androgens Stimulate the SREBP Pathway in Prostate Cancer Cells by Inducing a Shift in the SCAP-Retention Protein(s) Balance.- Metabolism of 17?-Estradiol in ACI Rat Liver and Mammary Gland After Chronic Estradiol Treatment.- Modulation of Transforming and Clastogenic Activities of Catechol Estrogens by a Catechol-O-methyltransferase Inhibitor in Syrian Hamster Embryo Fibroblasts.- Bi-directional Regulation of Human Progesterone Receptors and the Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase Pathway in Breast Cancer Cell Models.- Abnormal Properties of Mutants in the Hinge Region of ER?: Implications in Breast Cancer.- The Effects of Eicosapentaenoic Acid Upon Proliferation and 17?-Dehydrogenase Activity in MCF-7 Breast Carcinoma Cells.- Effect of Dietary Genistein on Estradiol-induced Mammary Carcinogenesis in the ACI Rat.- Cytogenetic Analysis of Genomic Destabilization in Solely Estrogen-Induced Female ACI Rat Mammary Neoplasms.- Microarray Analysis of Estrogen-induced Protection Against Breast Cancer.- Pregnancy Level of Estrogen Prevents Mammary Cancers.- Hormonal Dependence of Mammary Premalignant Progression.- The Possible Role of IGF-I and Androgens in the Development of Canine Inflammatory Mammary Carcinoma.- Hormonal Activation of the Gab-1 Docking Protein in Uterine Cells.- Endometrial Adenocarcinoma in Syrian Hamsters Treated with Diethylstilbestrol, Tamoxifen and N-Ethyl-Nitrosourea.- Hormonal Regulation of ZEB-1 and Implication for Progression of Human Reproductive Cancers.- Evaluation of Messenger RNA of Pituitary Tumour-transforming Gene-1 (PTTG1) as a Molecular Marker for Micrometastasis.- Presence of CCK-B Receptor mRNA in Human Functionless Pituitary Tumors.- Estrogen-Induced Mutations and Its Role in the Development of Tumorigenesis.- Englitazone Delays Fetal Growth in Late Gestation in the Rat.- The Tumor Suppressor Gene PTEN Plays a Role in Cell Cycle Regulation and Apoptosis in Prostate Cancer Cell Lines.- The Coactivators CBP and p300 in Androgen Independent Prostate Cancer.- Expression Study of Estrogen Receptor-related Receptors and Steroid Hormone Receptors in Human Prostatic Cells.- Immunohistochemical and In-Situ Detection of Sex Hormone-binding Globulin (SHBG) Expression in Breast and Prostate Cancer: Implications for Hormone Regulation.- Activation of Androgen Receptor in Prostate Cancer: Role of Protein Kinase A and Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinases.- Cadmium and Zinc Chloride-induced Preneoplastic Changes in the Rat Ventral Prostate: An Immunohistochemical and Molecular Study.

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